Professions are at least to a degree self-regulating, in that they control the training and evaluation processes that admit new persons to the field, and in judging whether the work done by their members is up to standard. This differs from other kinds of work where regulation if considered necessary is imposed by the state, or where official quality standard are often lacking.
And comparing the Criteria Of Profession to find similarity stated by Flexner 1910, Bixler & Bixler 1945, 1959 and Kelly 1981.Similiarity that I found is:
1. Intellectual will be develop together in order to develop a professions.
According to Flexner 1910, Intellectual opposed to physical and is accompanied by a high degree of individual responsibility and according to Bixler & Bixler 1945,1959, Intellectuality is developed through well organized body of knowledge trough higher learning and according to Kelly 1981, Profession require an intellectuality to service and individual responsibility.
And come to conclusion this three writer telling the same ideas that in develop profession intellectuality are vital and it will come together with responsibility for the society.
2. Criteria of profession are the practitioners require body of knowledge and on going research.
According to Flexner1910, profession is based on a body of knowledge and research. According to Bixler& Bixler 1945, 1959, Profession is constantly enlarge the body of knowledge uses scientific method to improve the techniques of education and service and according to Kelly 1981, Profession is body of knowledge which is continually enlarge through research.
Conclusion is these writers have the same ideas that profession is constantly enlarge body of knowledge through on going research and scientific method in utilizing the knowledge.
3. Profession comes when the practitioner is practicing the theory that they had learned in higher institution as the services provided as vital to humanity.
According to Flexner 1910, Profession is practical and theory. Bixler &Bixler 1945, 1959, the knowledge is applied through practical services which is vital to human and social welfare and according to Kelly 1981,The services provided is vital to humanity and the welfare of society. The same ideas that in practicing theory and giving services is vital and welfare to the society.
4. In developing a professional a profession can be develop through higher learning
According to Flexner 1910, profession can be thought trough a process of highly specialized professional education. Bixler &Bixler 1945, 1959,has written that profession criteria is entrust the education of it’s practitioner to institution of higher education and according to Kelly 1981, practitioner are educated at institution of higher learning. These writers had same ideas that practitioner is educated in higher learning and practicing theory that they had learned in higher institution and profession criteria is learning theory in higher institution and practicing by provide services to society.
5. Professional also requires a strong internal body of organization which is autonomous in controlling professional activity through Code of Ethics.
According to Flexner 1910, Profession has a strong internal organization of member and well developed group consciousness. According Bixler & Bixler 1945, 1959.the writer stated that profession function autonomously based on formula of professional policy which is controlled by professional policy and professional activity also strives to compensate it’s practitioner by providing freedom of action , opportunity for continuous professional growth and economic security it mean that professional person have been given good salary and payment also autonomous. According to Kelly 1981, the practitioner is autonomous and relatively independent and controls their own policy and activities and practitioner also use code of ethic as guidance in decision making and conduct also they had standard of practice which is encourage by the organization and supported by the association.
The similarity is the writer is strongly agreed that a profession is control by an organization that control professional activities even thought the practitioner are independent and autonomous to their activity.
6. Motivation, a professional person will always motivate altruism.
According to Flexner 1910, A practitioner who has motivated altruism (desire to help other and who is responsive to public interest ,according to Bixler& Bixler 194,1959,profession is attract individuals of intellectual and personal qualities who place services above personal gain and recognize their choosen occupation as a life work and according to Kelly 1981, Practitioner are motivated by services(altruism) and consider their work an important component of their lives the statement is telling the same ideas that a practitioner of a profession is very motivated altruism (the desire to help people) and place their profession above personal interest.
In contra, Flexner 1910 do not have code of conduct and standard of practice to synchronize professional activity it same like Bixler & Bixler 1945,1959 do not have code of ethic and standard of practice policy that control professional activity but provide freedom to strive to compensate to it’s practitioner to greater opportunity and continous professional growth. However Kelly 1981, has define criteria of profession in better definition. Which is in Kelly 1981, Professional have code of ethic for professional conduct in order to standardize and guide a professional practitioner in decision making and conduct also standard of practice which is encourage by an organization.
A professional can be either a person in a profession with certain types of skilled of work requiring formal training and education. A professional is a worker required to possess a large body of knowledge derived from extensive academic study usually tertiary level, with the training almost always formalized.
Professionals usually have autonomy in the workplace. They are expected to utilize their independent judgement and professional ethics in carrying out their responsibilities. This holds true even if they are employees instead of working on their own. Typically a professional provides a service (in exchange for salary), with established protocols for licensing, ethics, procedures, standards of service and training.
Firstly we have to develop intellectuality among nursing members, specialized education is an important aspect of professional status and must involve liberal art of education in addition to the biologic and social sciences and nursing discipline. And yet, we haven’t archive professional status because many of our nursing members do not hold a degree, many of them had certificated and diploma holder. We in the process of professionalization which is firstly people is working full time and obey rule and regulation (occupation), then begin to master technique and follow closely the movement of nursing development our member start concern about standard of training and practice and they make its by set up many training school and encourage their nurse to go for tertiary education after graduated diploma and co-curriculum has been improve too, the focus now more theory than practical ,because in developing a professional a profession can be though through higher learning. That the criteria that stated by the Flexner, Bixler & Bixler and Kelly. A professional is a worker required to possess a large body of knowledge derived from extensive academic study usually tertiary (higher learning). We need be strict in entry requirement for those diploma holder such as in
Criteria of profession are the practitioners require knowledge. And yet, our nursing do not have special body of knowledge. As profession nursing also has conceptual frameworks that contribute to the knowledge base of nursing and give direction to nursing practice, education and ongoing nursing research. But yet, We in Malaysia a lack of research and many research are comes from outside sources .We are in order of developing nursing to a special standard by encouraging nurses to do research and go for degree and to apply the theory and the conceptual framework in the practice but our nursing do not apply the framework in practice. We had nursing process from assessment, formulated nursing diagnose, nursing intervention and finally, nursing outcome.
As Profession comes when the practitioner is practicing the theory that they had learned in higher institution as the services provided as vital to humanity and profession requires altruism to public.
Yes, our nursing had learned theory from school of nursing but some in the job training, and yet as the services is vital to public welfare our nursing division work hard to improve nursing quality by organizing code of conduct that guide our nursing in ethic and decision making which is implemented by Board Of Nursing. Then the Ministry of Health also implemented 7S stand for Segak, Senyum, Salam, Sopan, Sensitif, Segera, Sentuh, in order to encourage nursing member to be countess in providing services to public it is essential nursing value and behaviors of nurses attitude and personal quality and professional behaviors because we had heard so many complaint about our nurses does not concern about giving full attention to the patient or client when giving care or providing care. In concern of providing care to patient nurse equipment also need to be transform into new device how nurse want to give a smile if the equipment used to checking patient is back date such as shacking thermometer. old syringe pump and infusiomet. How to perform segera if still using all back dated equipments. Then, so many unnecessary documents to be fill up. such as my Klang hospital which is well known as paper full hospital who want to work as a nurse if keep on being scolded by sister and doctor. How nurse want to perform in smile after being scolded some more walking in uncomfortable shoes. That is the shoes provided by ministry while sport shoes is not allowed pity nurses.
Our nurses also not committed to nursing and only minority of our member is joining our nursing association according to Malaysia Nursing Association (MNA) only 10% From 68.000.00 nurses is joining the association then causing our association lack of power to voice out our welfare and to fight for our benefit because Profession require a strong internal body of organization which is autonomous in controlling professional activity. But in attracting nurses in joining MNA have you investigate why nurse not joining MNA? It is because we actually do get anything from MNA, even go for conference we have to pay. Those who get sponsored is those who have position only. Then the person who attends there is well known as person with position then what happen to nurses who don’t have an opportunity to speak and go for the conference. We should consider them and provide place for new member to hold a position and speak and voice out they opinion.
Further more. Our nurses is lack in motivation, I been seen so many negligent cases in hospital. It is happen went nurse is not interested to listen to what they are patient complaint as they are more interested in chit charting among they are colleague. How can we archive professionalism if there is so many of nurses do not have consciousness in providing service in public? Not many of them interested in further study. From 10 interview that I had been done among my colleague only 4 of them really interested in nursing to improve they’re knowledge then the other give a reason 1. Because no other job,2.Last choice, 3. Get paid during study 4.After graduated they will have greater payment 5.Want to resign when get another good job offer and 6. Only go when there is allowance for study and greater payment after graduate. But none of them answer me to improve knowledge to provide safe and quality service to society. It is mean lack of motivation toward profession and putting self interest at the first place.
This is happened because in our country, nursing profession do not exposes well. Many people do not understand what is nurse duty and profession, many traditional thought that nurse is to assist the doctor, cleaning people buttock, have poor salary and monopolized by women.
Then in concern of providing care, nurse welfare also should be consider maybe we can consider to sponsor some cuisine for tea break, and allowance for those who work in shift.
Therefore, we have to educated our society to change the perspective about nursing profession. No point pointing finger to our nurses as I look back nurses that we had today employed from those had very minimum educational level of recruitment to be a student nurse such as at least pass Bahasa Melayu. Then soon end up with so many student nurses failure and those who graduated also do not know how to calculate drip, do not have critical thinking, do work simply do not apply nursing process and do not go through nursing frame work.. I felt so sad about my nursing division and I am very shame to what had happened. Do not blame them. Actually educational level should be consider too: why? It is because those student who had first grade , 2nd grade and 3rd grade actually had different attitude. I believe that student who had 1st grade actually more motivated then I would like to suggest that entry level should be at least 4 credit 1.Bahasa Melayu, 2.English, 3.Mathematic and 4.Science.Why? it is because nursing is consist all calculation science and biology also all the reference is in English.
Conclusion, Nursing not yet achieve standard of professional in
Burke, K. E. (2000). Fundamental Of Nursing Concepts,Process and Practice 6th edition.
Chitty, K. K. (2001). Professional Nursing .Concept And Challenges 3th Edition.